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Different capital letters imply that the formula was applied to a different profile. For example, Ra is the arithmetic average of the roughness profile, Pa is the arithmetic average of the unfiltered raw profile, and Sa is the arithmetic average of the 3D roughness.
Each of the formulas listed in the tables assume that the roughness profile has been filtered from the raw profile data and the mean line has been calculated.
Height is assumed to be positive in the up direction, away from the bulk material. Amplitude parameters characterize the surface based on the vertical deviations of the roughness profile from the mean line.
Many of them are closely related to the parameters found in statistics for characterizing population samples.
Slope parameters describe characteristics of the slope of the roughness profile. Spacing and counting parameters describe how often the profile crosses certain thresholds.
These parameters are often used to describe repetitive roughness profiles, such as those produced by turning on a lathe.
S m is the mean spacing between peaks. Just as with real mountains it is important to define a "peak". For S m the surface must have dipped below the mean surface before rising again to a new peak.
When trying to understand a surface that depends on both amplitude and frequency it is not obvious which pair of metrics optimally describes the balance, so a statistical analysis of pairs of measurements can be performed e.
These parameters are based on the bearing ratio curve also known as the Abbott-Firestone curve. This includes the Rk family of parameters.
But fractals cannot provide a full-scale representation of a typical machined surface affected by tool feed marks, it ignores the geometry of the cutting edge.
Paulo Davim, , op. Areal roughness parameters are defined in the ISO series. The resulting values are Sa, Sq, Sz, Many optical measurement instruments are able to measure the surface roughness over an area.
Area measurements are also possible with contact measurement systems. Multiple, closely spaced 2D scans are taken of the target area.
These are then digitally stitched together using relevant software, resulting in a 3D image and accompanying areal roughness parameters.
Soil-surface roughness SSR refers to the vertical variations present in the micro- and macro-relief of a soil surface, as well as their stochastic distribution.
There are four distinct classes of SSR, each one of them representing a characteristic vertical length scale; the first class includes microrelief variations from individual soil grains to aggregates on the order of 0.
The two first classes account for the so-called microroughness, which has been shown to be largely influenced on an event and seasonal timescale by rainfall and tillage, respectively.
Microroughness is most commonly quantified by means of the Random Roughness, which is essentially the standard deviation of bed surface elevation data around the mean elevation, after correction for slope using the best-fit plane and removal of tillage effects in the individual height readings.
However, a recent study which examined the response of smooth soil surfaces on rainfall showed that RR can considerably increase for low initial microroughness length scales in the order of 0 - 5 mm.
It was also shown that the increase or decrease is consistent among various SSR indices . Surface structure plays a key role in governing contact mechanics ,  that is to say the mechanical behavior exhibited at an interface between two solid objects as they approach each other and transition from conditions of non-contact to full contact.
In particular, normal contact stiffness is governed predominantly by asperity structures roughness, surface slope and fractality and material properties.
In terms of engineering surfaces, roughness is considered to be detrimental to part performance. As a consequence, most manufacturing prints establish an upper limit on roughness, but not a lower limit.
An exception is in cylinder bores where oil is retained in the surface profile and a minimum roughness is required. Surface structure is often closely related to the friction and wear properties of a surface.
The peaks in the roughness profile are not always the points of contact. The form and waviness i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Surfaces and their Measurement. Retrieved January 13, M; Helming, K; Prasad, S. Kyle Brauer Boone, et al. Einige Beispiele aus der Literatur: Eine Simulation wird in der Regel in Situationen beobachtet, in welchen dem Patienten irgend ein Gewinn erwachsen kann in finanzieller oder anderer Hinsicht.
Hinweise gibt eine mangelnde Mitarbeit bei der Untersuchung des Betroffenen wie bei der Behandlung der beklagten Symptome.
Fehlende Modulierbarkeit der beklagten Schmerzen. Im Ergebnis formulieren sie: Schweiz Med Forum ;6: Nichtorganisches Absinken im Armhalteversuch: Allerdings kann auch alleine durch die Angst vor Entdeckung der Puls ansteigen.
Der Patient wird gebeten auf einem Bein zu stehen und das andere Knie in Richtung der Brust zu heben. Durch die Beugung wird der Druck auf die Facetten vermindert, es entsteht keine Dehnung sondern eine Entlastung des Ischiadikus.
Fehlt dieser Druck nach unten auf der Gegenseite, ist dies ein Hinweis auf Simulation. Bei neurologischen Symptomen werden bei Simulation oft die anatomischen Grenzen nicht eingehalten.
Simuliertes Zittern kann in der Hocke oder Kniebeuge schlechter aufrechterhalten werden. Emotional sollte bei Verdacht auf Simulation oder Aggravation sachlich geblieben und weiter untersucht und dokumentiert werden, ohne auf die demonstrativen Aspekte zu sehr einzugehen.
Indirekte Hinweise an den Patienten, dass Symptome nicht zu einem Krankheitsbild passen, werden aber als sinnvoll angesehen und erlauben auch dem Patienten sein Gesicht zu wahren.
Je sachlicher der Arzt dabei bleibt, umso eher besteht Aussicht, dass der Untersuchte sein Symptom ohne Gesichtsverlust aufgeben kann. Interessant ist das Experiment von Rosenhan bei dem gesunde Probanden 12 verschiedene psychiatrische Kliniken in den USA aufsuchten.
Sie wurden alle mit der Diagnose eines Zustandes nach einer schizophrenen Episode entlassen. Bagby et al Dies gilt auch, wenn der Staatanwalt oder der Anwalt eine psychiatrische Begutachtung angeregt hat.
Im Besonderen gilt dies, wenn die gesamte Behandlung als Auflage zur Minderung einer Strafe erfolgt oder wenn der Betroffene vorhat, jemanden wegen eines psychologischen oder psychiatrischen Schadens zu verklagen.
Tests die eine Simulation definitiv nachweisen stecken in den Kinderschuhen. Funktionelle Kernspinuntersuchungen zeigen nach Studien bei Simulation eine bilaterale Aktivierung der praefrontalen und parietalen Hirnregionen.
Simulanten wollen nicht geheilt werden, sie wollen eher beweisen, dass keine Behandlung hilft. Bisher soweit erkennbar selten sind Probanden bei Gutachten offensichtlich durch gedruckte oder im Internet unter verschiedenen Adressen abrufbare Anleitungen gut auf ihre Simulation vorbereitet.
Das spricht sich rum: Eine Version als pdf Bechterewforum: Antwort Lade Dir einfach das Merkblatt von " T. Dort findest Du erstklassige tipps.
Verlinkt ist die Seite auch bei vielen anderen Selbsthilfeseiten z. Gute Krankteirer bringen es auf Monate im Jahr oder andernorts: Interessant sind auch manche vorbereitenden Diskussionen in Foren, dort tauschen manche Rentenbewerber nicht nur Tipps und Tricks zum Verhalten in der Untersuchung aus, sondern teils auch eindeutiger Anleitungen und Vorgehensweisen.
Auch eindrucksvolle Aufforderungen zur Simulation einer psychischen Krankheit finden sich: Man kann sich das Recht auf Faulheit verwirklichen: Selbst die Sozialhilfe wird kundenfreundlicher, wenn durch angebl.
Der Patient gestand dann ein, die psychotische Symptomatik im Rahmen eines Rentenbegehrens simuliert zu haben.
Das Abschneiden im Test korrelierte nicht zur Schwere der Depression. Rolle des Behandlers vs. Zitat aus Hessisches Landessozialgericht Az: Auf der Grundlage der in der gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung anzuwendenden Theorie von der wesentlichen Bedingung dazu Schwerdtfeger in: Diese Bewertung ist immer individuell auf die konkret betroffene Person und nicht auf die normale Reaktionslage eines Durchschnittsmenschen zu beziehen.
In der Regel klingen diese psychischen Folgen in wenigen Monaten, selten im Verlauf von ein bis zwei Jahren ab. Die geheimen Tricks der Blaumacher Taschenbuch Dr.
Text in einem Ebay- Angebot besucht am Das Programm wird auf manchen Seiten auch als Download angeboten. Selbst bei Amazon rangiert sie in der Verkaufsliste auf Platz 3.
Allerdings kann das Vorhandensein einer Simulation die Diagnostik erheblich erschweren. Auflage Rohling, Martin L.
A meta-analytic review of the association between financial compensation and the experience and treatment of chronic pain.
Lee TM, et al Diagnosis of functional neurological disease. Br J Hosp Med ;57 8: Symptom-validity testing of feigned sensory or memory deficits: British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31 Pt 2 , Ledson, Detecting the Faking of Amnesia: Br J Clin Psychol.
Prognosis for people with back pain under a No-fault hour-cover compensation scheme. Effect of eliminating compensation for pain and suffering on the outcome of insurance claims for whiplash injury.
N Engl J Med. Simulating a memory impairment: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. The Clinical Neuropsychologist , Vol. Can the MMPI-2 validity scales detect depression feigned by experts?
Malingering on neuropsychological memory tests: Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd ; Detection of malingering in postconcussive syndrome.
Head injury and postconcussive syndrome pp. Dietmar Heubrock et al. A new clinical evaluation for hysterical paralysis.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine ; Feigned psychosis- a review of the simulation of mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry ; Kefalas S, Ezenkwele U.
Wide-complex tachycardia as the presenting complaint in a case of malingering. Cognitive functioning in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy: Classification accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering in persons reporting exposure to environmental and industrial toxins: Results of a known-groups analysis.
Feigned psychiatric symptoms in the emergency room. Psychiatric Services ; Classification accuracy of the test of memory malingering in traumatic brain injury: J Clin Exp Neuropsychol.
The detection of malingered psychosis. Psychiatric Clinics of North America ; Malingered neurocognitive dysfunction in neurotoxic exposure: J Occup Environ Med.
The prevalence of cognitive malingering in persons reporting exposure to occupational and environmental substances. Abbreviated form of the test of memory malingering.
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But is it a ridiculous idea? The obvious objection that first arises is: But recently, a number of philosophers, futurists, science-fiction writers, and technologists—people who share a near-religious faith in technological progress—have come to believe that the simulation argument is not just plausible, but inescapable.
Judge for yourself, firstly perhaps by listening to Musk explain the concept in brief at a Recode Conference above.
If you find yourself comforted by his answer, you may just be a game designer. Then, for a more sprawling, pop-cultural dive into the simulation argument, spend an hour with The Simulation Hypothesis at the top of the post, a documentary that—depending on the laws of your current place of residence—may or may not be enhanced by an edible.
These are questions philosophers and Philip K. Dick have always asked, but until recently, they had little recourse to independent confirmation of their hypotheses.
Which answers the question of who might be running the program. Great Classics, Indies, Noir, Westerns, etc. What Do Most Philosophers Believe?
Hi, thanks for linking to this. I highly recommend reading, and perhaps posting as a counterpoint, this paper by philosopher David Chalmers:. His YouTube videos are extremely good and important to see if one wants to understand the nature of reality and consciousness.
Campbell is the expert; most of the others are theorists. Biological systems can only exist in base reality. Roughness can be measured by manual comparison against a "surface roughness comparator" a sample of known surface roughness , but more generally a surface profile measurement is made with a profilometer.
These can be of the contact variety typically a diamond stylus or optical e. However, controlled roughness can often be desirable.
For example, a gloss surface can be too shiny to the eye and too slippery to the finger a touchpad is a good example so a controlled roughness is required.
This is a case where both amplitude and frequency are very important. A roughness value can either be calculated on a profile line or on a surface area.
The profile roughness parameter Ra, Rq, The area roughness parameters Sa, Sq, Each of the roughness parameters are calculated using a formula for describing the surface.
Standard references that describe each in detail are Surfaces and their Measurement. Some parameters are used only in certain industries or within certain countries.
Since these parameters reduce all of the information in a profile to a single number, great care must be taken in applying and interpreting them. Small changes in how the raw profile data is filtered, how the mean line is calculated, and the physics of the measurement can greatly affect the calculated parameter.
With modern digital equipment, the scan can be evaluated to make sure there are no obvious glitches that skew the values. Because it may not be obvious to many users what each of the measurements really mean, a simulation tool allows a user to adjust key parameters, visualizing how surfaces which are obviously different to the human eye are differentiated by the measurements.
Such tools can be found in app format. By convention every 2D roughness parameter is a capital R followed by additional characters in the subscript.
The subscript identifies the formula that was used, and the R means that the formula was applied to a 2D roughness profile. Different capital letters imply that the formula was applied to a different profile.
For example, Ra is the arithmetic average of the roughness profile, Pa is the arithmetic average of the unfiltered raw profile, and Sa is the arithmetic average of the 3D roughness.
Each of the formulas listed in the tables assume that the roughness profile has been filtered from the raw profile data and the mean line has been calculated.
Height is assumed to be positive in the up direction, away from the bulk material. Amplitude parameters characterize the surface based on the vertical deviations of the roughness profile from the mean line.
Many of them are closely related to the parameters found in statistics for characterizing population samples. Slope parameters describe characteristics of the slope of the roughness profile.
Spacing and counting parameters describe how often the profile crosses certain thresholds. These parameters are often used to describe repetitive roughness profiles, such as those produced by turning on a lathe.
S m is the mean spacing between peaks. Just as with real mountains it is important to define a "peak". Any person who shall enter into any contract or agreement or shall take part in any conspiracy or combination in the form of a trust or otherwise, in restraint of trade or commerce or to prevent by artificial means free competition in the market;.
Any person who shall monopolize any merchandise or object of trade or commerce, or shall combine with any other person or persons to monopolize and merchandise or object in order to alter the price thereof by spreading false rumors or making use of any other article to restrain free competition in the market;.
Any person who, being a manufacturer, producer, or processor of any merchandise or object of commerce or an importer of any merchandise or object of commerce from any foreign country, either as principal or agent, wholesaler or retailer, shall combine, conspire or agree in any manner with any person likewise engaged in the manufacture, production, processing, assembling or importation of such merchandise or object of commerce or with any other persons not so similarly engaged for the purpose of making transactions prejudicial to lawful commerce, or of increasing the market price in any part of the Philippines, of any such merchandise or object of commerce manufactured, produced, processed, assembled in or imported into the Philippines, or of any article in the manufacture of which such manufactured, produced, or imported merchandise or object of commerce is used.
If the offense mentioned in this article affects any food substance, motor fuel or lubricants, or other articles of prime necessity, the penalty shall be that of prision mayor in its maximum and medium periods it being sufficient for the imposition thereof that the initial steps have been taken toward carrying out the purposes of the combination.
Any property possessed under any contract or by any combination mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, and being the subject thereof, shall be forfeited to the Government of the Philippines.
Whenever any of the offenses described above is committed by a corporation or association, the president and each one of its agents or representatives in the Philippines in case of a foreign corporation or association, who shall have knowingly permitted or failed to prevent the commission of such offense, shall be held liable as principals thereof.
Importation and disposition of falsely marked articles or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious metals or their alloys. Any stamp, brand, label, or mark shall be deemed to fail to indicate the actual fineness of the article on which it is engraved, printed, stamped, labeled or attached, when the rest of the article shows that the quality or fineness thereof is less by more than one-half karat, if made of gold, and less by more than four one-thousandth, if made of silver, than what is shown by said stamp, brand, label or mark.
But in case of watch cases and flatware made of gold, the actual fineness of such gold shall not be less by more than three one-thousandth than the fineness indicated by said stamp, brand, label, or mark.
Subsisting and altering trade-mark, trade-names, or service marks. Any person who shall substitute the trade name or trade-mark of some other manufacturer or dealer or a colorable imitation thereof, for the trademark of the real manufacturer or dealer upon any article of commerce and shall sell the same;.
Any person who shall sell such articles of commerce or offer the same for sale, knowing that the trade-name or trade- mark has been fraudulently used in such goods as described in the preceding subdivision;.
Any person who, in the sale or advertising of his services, shall use or substitute the service mark of some other person, or a colorable imitation of such mark; or.
Any person who, knowing the purpose for which the trade-name, trade-mark, or service mark of a person is to be used, prints, lithographs, or in any way reproduces such trade-name, trade-mark, or service mark, or a colorable imitation thereof, for another person, to enable that other person to fraudulently use such trade-name, trade-mark, or service mark on his own goods or in connection with the sale or advertising of his services.
A trade-name or trade-mark as herein used is a word or words, name, title, symbol, emblem, sign or device, or any combination thereof used as an advertisement, sign, label, poster, or otherwise, for the purpose of enabling the public to distinguish the business of the person who owns and uses said trade-name or trade-mark.
A service mark as herein used is a mark used in the sale or advertising of services to identify the services of one person and distinguish them from the services of others and includes without limitation the marks, names, symbols, titles, designations, slogans, character names, and distinctive features of radio or other advertising.
Unfair competition, fraudulent registration of trade-mark, trade-name or service mark, fraudulent designation of origin, and false description.
Any person who, in unfair competition and for the purposes of deceiving or defrauding another of his legitimate trade or the public in general, shall sell his goods giving them the general appearance of goods of another manufacturer or dealer, either as to the goods themselves, or in the wrapping of the packages in which they are contained or the device or words thereon or in any other features of their appearance which would be likely to induce the public to believe that the goods offered are those of a manufacturer or dealer other than the actual manufacturer or dealer or shall give other persons a chance or opportunity to do the same with a like purpose.
Any person who shall affix, apply, annex or use in connection with any goods or services or any container or containers for goods a false designation of origin or any false description or representation and shall sell such goods or services.
Any person who by means of false or fraudulent representation or declarations orally or in writing or by other fraudulent means shall procure from the patent office or from any other office which may hereafter be established by law for the purposes the registration of a trade-name, trade-mark or service mark or of himself as the owner of such trade-name, trade-mark or service mark or an entry respecting a trade-name, trade-mark or service mark.
Possession, preparation and use of prohibited drugs and maintenance of opium dens. Anyone who unless lawfully authorized shall possess, prepare, administer, or otherwise use any prohibited drug.
Indian hemp, their derivatives, and all preparations made from them or any of them, and such other drugs, whether natural or synthetic, having physiological action as a narcotic drug.
By narcotic drug is meant a drug that produces a condition of insensibility and melancholy dullness of mind with delusions and may be habit-forming.
Anyone who shall maintain a dive or resort where any prohibited drug is used in any form, in violation of the law.
Keeper, watchman and visitor of opium den. Anyone who shall act as a keeper or watchman of a dive or resort where any prohibited drug is used in any manner contrary to law; and.
Any person who, not being included in the provisions of the next preceding article, shall knowingly visit any dive or resort of the character referred to above.
Importation and sale of prohibited drugs. The same penalty shall be imposed upon any person who shall unlawfully sell or deliver to another prohibited drug.
Illegal possession of opium pipe or other paraphernalia for the use of any prohibited drug. The illegal possession of an opium pipe or other paraphernalia for using any other prohibited drug shall be prima facie evidence that its possessor has used said drug.
Prescribing opium unnecessary for a patient. What acts are punishable in gambling. Any person other than those referred to in subsections b and c who, in any manner shall directly, or indirectly take part in any game of monte, jueteng or any other form of lottery, policy, banking, or percentage game, dog races, or any other game of scheme the result of which depends wholly or chiefly upon chance or hazard; or wherein wagers consisting of money, articles of value or representative of value are made; or in the exploitation or use of any other mechanical invention or contrivance to determine by chance the loser or winner of money or any object or representative of value.
Any person who shall knowingly permit any form of gambling referred to in the preceding subdivision to be carried on in any unhabited or uninhabited place of any building, vessel or other means of transportation owned or controlled by him.
If the place where gambling is carried on has the reputation of a gambling place or that prohibited gambling is frequently carried on therein, the culprit shall be punished by the penalty provided for in this article in its maximum period.
Importation, sale and possession of lottery tickets or advertisements. Any person who shall knowingly and with intent to use them, have in his possession lottery tickets or advertisements, or shall sell or distribute the same without connivance with the importer of the same, shall be punished by arresto menor , or a fine not exceeding pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court.
The possession of any lottery ticket or advertisement shall be prima facie evidence of an intent to sell, distribute or use the same in the Philippine Islands.
Betting in sports contests. Illegal betting on horse race. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from to 2, pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who, under the same circumstances, shall maintain or employ a totalizer or other device or scheme for betting on horse races or realizing any profit therefrom.
For the purposes of this article, any race held in the same day at the same place shall be held punishable as a separate offense, and if the same be committed by any partnership, corporation or association, the president and the directors or managers thereof shall be deemed to be principals in the offense if they have consented to or knowingly tolerated its commission.
Any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, by betting money or other valuable things, or who organizes cockfights at which bets are made, on a day other than those permitted by law.
Any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, at a place other than a licensed cockpit.
Immoral doctrines, obscene publications and exhibitions and indecent shows. As amended by PD Nos. Vagrants and prostitutes; Penalty. Any person having no apparent means of subsistence, who has the physical ability to work and who neglects to apply himself or herself to some lawful calling;.
Any person found loitering about public or semi-public buildings or places or trampling or wandering about the country or the streets without visible means of support;.
Any idle or dissolute person who ledges in houses of ill fame; ruffians or pimps and those who habitually associate with prostitutes;.
Any person who, not being included in the provisions of other articles of this Code, shall be found loitering in any inhabited or uninhabited place belonging to another without any lawful or justifiable purpose;.
For the purposes of this article, women who, for money or profit, habitually indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct, are deemed to be prostitutes.
Any person found guilty of any of the offenses covered by this articles shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine not exceeding pesos, and in case of recidivism, by arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from to 2, pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court.
Who are public officers. Knowingly rendering unjust judgment. Judgment rendered through negligence. Malicious delay in the administration of justice.
Prosecution of offenses; negligence and tolerance. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or solicitor. The same penalty shall be imposed upon an attorney-at-law or solicitor procurador judicial who, having undertaken the defense of a client or having received confidential information from said client in a case, shall undertake the defense of the opposing party in the same case, without the consent of his first client.
If the gift was accepted by the officer in consideration of the execution of an act which does not constitute a crime, and the officer executed said act, he shall suffer the same penalty provided in the preceding paragraph; and if said act shall not have been accomplished, the officer shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional, in its medium period and a fine of not less than twice the value of such gift.
If the object for which the gift was received or promised was to make the public officer refrain from doing something which it was his official duty to do, he shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine of not less than the value of the gift and not less than three times the value of such gift.
In addition to the penalties provided in the preceding paragraphs, the culprit shall suffer the penalty of special temporary disqualification.
The provisions contained in the preceding paragraphs shall be made applicable to assessors, arbitrators, appraisal and claim commissioners, experts or any other persons performing public duties.
As amended by Batas Pambansa Blg. If it is the public officer who asks or demands such gift or present, he shall suffer the penalty of death.
As added by Sec. Corruption of public officials. Frauds against the public treasury and similar offenses. In his official capacity, in dealing with any person with regard to furnishing supplies, the making of contracts, or the adjustment or settlement of accounts relating to public property or funds, shall enter into an agreement with any interested party or speculator or make use of any other scheme, to defraud the Government;.
Being entrusted with the collection of taxes, licenses, fees and other imposts, shall be guilty or any of the following acts or omissions:.
When the culprit is an officer or employee of the Bureau of Internal Revenue or the Bureau of Customs, the provisions of the Administrative Code shall be applied.
Possession of prohibited interest by a public officer. This provisions is applicable to experts, arbitrators and private accountants who, in like manner, shall take part in any contract or transaction connected with the estate or property in appraisal, distribution or adjudication of which they shall have acted, and to the guardians and executors with respect to the property belonging to their wards or estate.
Malversation of public funds or property; Presumption of malversation. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the amount involved in the misappropriation or malversation does not exceed two hundred pesos.
The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if the amount involved is more than two hundred pesos but does not exceed six thousand pesos.
The penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its minimum period, if the amount involved is more than six thousand pesos but is less than twelve thousand pesos.
The penalty of reclusion temporal, in its medium and maximum periods, if the amount involved is more than twelve thousand pesos but is less than twenty-two thousand pesos.
If the amount exceeds the latter, the penalty shall be reclusion temporal in its maximum period to reclusion perpetua. In all cases, persons guilty of malversation shall also suffer the penalty of perpetual special disqualification and a fine equal to the amount of the funds malversed or equal to the total value of the property embezzled.
The failure of a public officer to have duly forthcoming any public funds or property with which he is chargeable, upon demand by any duly authorized officer, shall be prima facie evidence that he has put such missing funds or property to personal use.
Failure of accountable officer to render accounts. Failure of a responsible public officer to render accounts before leaving the country.
Illegal use of public funds or property. In either case, the offender shall also suffer the penalty of temporary special disqualification. If no damage or embarrassment to the public service has resulted, the penalty shall be a fine from 5 to 50 per cent of the sum misapplied.
Failure to make delivery of public funds or property. This provision shall apply to any public officer who, being ordered by competent authority to deliver any property in his custody or under his administration, shall refuse to make such delivery.
The fine shall be graduated in such case by the value of the thing, provided that it shall not less than 50 pesos.
Officers included in the preceding provisions. Conniving with or consenting to evasion. By prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and temporary special disqualification in its maximum period to perpetual special disqualification, if the fugitive shall have been sentenced by final judgment to any penalty.
By prision correccional in its minimum period and temporary special disqualification, in case the fugitive shall not have been finally convicted but only held as a detention prisoner for any crime or violation of law or municipal ordinance.
Escape of prisoner under the custody of a person not a public officer. Removal, concealment or destruction of documents. The penalty of prision mayor and a fine not exceeding 1, pesos, whenever serious damage shall have been caused thereby to a third party or to the public interest.
The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium period and a fine not exceeding 1, pesos, whenever the damage to a third party or to the public interest shall not have been serious.
In either case, the additional penalty of temporary special disqualification in its maximum period to perpetual disqualification shall be imposed.
Opening of closed documents. Revelation of secrets by an officer. Public officer revealing secrets of private individual.
Disobedience to order of superior officers, when said order was suspended by inferior officer. Refusal to discharge elective office.
If the purpose of the maltreatment is to extort a confession, or to obtain some information from the prisoner, the offender shall be punished by prision correccional in its minimum period, temporary special disqualification and a fine not exceeding pesos, in addition to his liability for the physical injuries or damage caused.
Anticipation of duties of a public office. Prolonging performance of duties and powers. Abandonment of office or position. If such office shall have been abandoned in order to evade the discharge of the duties of preventing, prosecuting or punishing any of the crime falling within Title One, and Chapter One of Title Three of Book Two of this Code, the offender shall be punished by prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, and by arresto mayor if the purpose of such abandonment is to evade the duty of preventing, prosecuting or punishing any other crime.
Usurpation of legislative powers. Usurpation of executive functions. Usurpation of judicial functions. Disobeying request for disqualification.
Orders or requests by executive officers to any judicial authority. Abuses against chastity; Penalties. Upon any public officer who shall solicit or make immoral or indecent advances to a woman interested in matters pending before such officer for decision, or with respect to which he is required to submit a report to or consult with a superior officer;.
Any warden or other public officer directly charged with the care and custody of prisoners or persons under arrest who shall solicit or make immoral or indecent advances to a woman under his custody.
If the person solicited be the wife, daughter, sister of relative within the same degree by affinity of any person in the custody of such warden or officer, the penalties shall be prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and temporary special disqualification.
Death or physical injuries inflicted under exceptional circumstances. If he shall inflict upon them physical injuries of any other kind, he shall be exempt from punishment.
These rules shall be applicable, under the same circumstances, to parents with respect to their daughters under eighteen years of age, and their seducer, while the daughters are living with their parents.
Any person who shall promote or facilitate the prostitution of his wife or daughter, or shall otherwise have consented to the infidelity of the other spouse shall not be entitled to the benefits of this article.
With treachery, taking advantage of superior strength, with the aid of armed men, or employing means to weaken the defense or of means or persons to insure or afford impunity.
By means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, shipwreck, stranding of a vessel, derailment or assault upon a street car or locomotive, fall of an airship, by means of motor vehicles, or with the use of any other means involving great waste and ruin.
On occasion of any of the calamities enumerated in the preceding paragraph, or of an earthquake, eruption of a volcano, destructive cyclone, epidemic or other public calamity.
With cruelty, by deliberately and inhumanly augmenting the suffering of the victim, or outraging or scoffing at his person or corpse.
Penalty for frustrated parricide, murder or homicide. The courts, considering the facts of the case, may likewise reduce by one degree the penalty which under Article 51 should be imposed for an attempt to commit any of such crimes.
Death caused in a tumultuous affray. If it cannot be determined who inflicted the serious physical injuries on the deceased, the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon all those who shall have used violence upon the person of the victim.
Physical injuries inflicted in a tumultuous affray. When the physical injuries inflicted are of a less serious nature and the person responsible therefor cannot be identified, all those who appear to have used any violence upon the person of the offended party shall be punished by arresto mayor from five to fifteen days.
Giving assistance to suicide. However, if the suicide is not consummated, the penalty of arresto mayor in its medium and maximum periods, shall be imposed.
If the crime penalized in this article be committed by the mother of the child for the purpose of concealing her dishonor, she shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, and if said crime be committed for the same purpose by the maternal grandparents or either of them, the penalty shall be prision mayor.
The penalty of reclusion temporal, if he shall use any violence upon the person of the pregnant woman. The penalty of prision mayor if, without using violence, he shall act without the consent of the woman.
The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the woman shall have consented. Abortion practiced by the woman herself of by her parents.
Any woman who shall commit this offense to conceal her dishonor, shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods.
If this crime be committed by the parents of the pregnant woman or either of them, and they act with the consent of said woman for the purpose of concealing her dishonor, the offenders shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.
Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and dispensing of abortives. Any pharmacist who, without the proper prescription from a physician, shall dispense any abortive shall suffer arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 1, pesos.
Responsibility of participants in a duel. If he shall inflict upon the latter physical injuries only, he shall suffer the penalty provided therefor, according to their nature.
In any other case, the combatants shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor , although no physical injuries have been inflicted. Challenging to a duel.
Any other intentional mutilation shall be punished by prision mayor in its medium and maximum periods. The penalty of prision mayor, if in consequence of the physical injuries inflicted, the injured person shall become insane, imbecile, impotent, or blind;.
The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if in consequence of the physical injuries inflicted, the person injured shall have lost the use of speech or the power to hear or to smell, or shall have lost an eye, a hand, a foot, an arm, or a leg or shall have lost the use of any such member, or shall have become incapacitated for the work in which he was therefor habitually engaged;.
The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, if in consequence of the physical injuries inflicted, the person injured shall have become deformed, or shall have lost any other part of his body, or shall have lost the use thereof, or shall have been ill or incapacitated for the performance of the work in which he as habitually engaged for a period of more than ninety days;.
The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period, if the physical injuries inflicted shall have caused the illness or incapacity for labor of the injured person for more than thirty days.
If the offense shall have been committed against any of the persons enumerated in Article , or with attendance of any of the circumstances mentioned in Article , the case covered by subdivision number 1 of this Article shall be punished by reclusion temporal in its medium and maximum periods; the case covered by subdivision number 2 by prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its minimum period; the case covered by subdivision number 3 by prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods; and the case covered by subdivision number 4 by prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods.
The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not be applicable to a parent who shall inflict physical injuries upon his child by excessive chastisement.
Administering injurious substances or beverages. Less serious physical injuries. Whenever less serious physical injuries shall have been inflicted with the manifest intent to kill or offend the injured person, or under circumstances adding ignominy to the offense in addition to the penalty of arresto mayor , a fine not exceeding pesos shall be imposed.
Slight physical injuries and maltreatment. By arresto menor when the offender has inflicted physical injuries which shall incapacitate the offended party for labor from one to nine days, or shall require medical attendance during the same period.
By arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 20 pesos and censure when the offender has caused physical injuries which do not prevent the offended party from engaging in his habitual work nor require medical assistance.
By arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not exceeding 50 pesos when the offender shall ill-treat another by deed without causing any injury.
Kidnapping and serious illegal detention. If any serious physical injuries shall have been inflicted upon the person kidnapped or detained; or if threats to kill him shall have been made.
If the person kidnapped or detained shall be a minor, female or a public officer. The penalty shall be death where the kidnapping or detention was committed for the purpose of extorting ransom from the victim or any other person, even if none of the circumstances above-mentioned were present in the commission of the offense.
The same penalty shall be incurred by anyone who shall furnish the place for the perpetration of the crime. If the offender shall voluntarily release the person so kidnapped or detained within three days from the commencement of the detention, without having attained the purpose intended, and before the institution of criminal proceedings against him, the penalty shall be prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not exceeding seven hundred pesos.
Kidnapping and failure to return a minor. Inducing a minor to abandon his home. If the person committing any of the crimes covered by the two preceding articles shall be the father or the mother of the minor, the penalty shall be arresto mayor or a fine not exceeding three hundred pesos, or both.
If the crime be committed for the purpose of assigning the offended party to some immoral traffic, the penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.
Exploitation of child labor. Services rendered under compulsion in payment of debt. Any one who shall fail to render assistance to any person whom he shall find in an uninhabited place wounded or in danger of dying, when he can render such assistance without detriment to himself, unless such omission shall constitute a more serious offense.
Anyone who shall fail to help or render assistance to another whom he has accidentally wounded or injured.
Anyone who, having found an abandoned child under seven years of age, shall fail to deliver said child to the authorities or to his family, or shall fail to take him to a safe place.
When the death of the minor shall result from such abandonment, the culprit shall be punished by prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods; but if the life of the minor shall have been in danger only, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods.
The provisions contained in the two preceding paragraphs shall not prevent the imposition of the penalty provided for the act committed, when the same shall constitute a more serious offense.
Abandonment of minor by person entrusted with his custody; indifference of parents. The same penalty shall be imposed upon the parents who shall neglect their children by not giving them the education which their station in life require and financial conditions permit.
Any person who shall cause any boy or girl under sixteen years of age to perform any dangerous feat of balancing, physical strength, or contortion.
Any person who, being an acrobat, gymnast, rope-walker, diver, wild-animal tamer or circus manager or engaged in a similar calling, shall employ in exhibitions of these kinds children under sixteen years of age who are not his children or descendants.
Any person engaged in any of the callings enumerated in the next paragraph preceding who shall employ any descendant of his under twelve years of age in such dangerous exhibitions.
Any ascendant, guardian, teacher or person entrusted in any capacity with the care of a child under sixteen years of age, who shall deliver such child gratuitously to any person following any of the callings enumerated in paragraph 2 hereof, or to any habitual vagrant or beggar.
If the delivery shall have been made in consideration of any price, compensation, or promise, the penalty shall in every case be imposed in its maximum period.
In either case, the guardian or curator convicted shall also be removed from office as guardian or curator; and in the case of the parents of the child, they may be deprived, temporarily or perpetually, in the discretion of the court, of their parental authority.
Any person who shall induce any child under sixteen years of age to abandon the home of its ascendants, guardians, curators, or teachers to follow any person engaged in any of the callings mentioned in paragraph 2 hereof, or to accompany any habitual vagrant or beggar.
Additional penalties for other offenses. Qualified trespass to dwelling. If the offense be committed by means of violence or intimidation, the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not exceeding 1, pesos.
Other forms of trespass. The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the crime be threatened to commit, if the offender shall have made the threat demanding money or imposing any other condition, even though not unlawful, and said offender shall have attained his purpose.
If the offender shall not have attained his purpose, the penalty lower by two degrees shall be imposed. If the threat be made in writing or through a middleman, the penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.
The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding pesos, if the threat shall not have been made subject to a condition.
Bond for good behavior. Any person who, without being included in the provisions of the next preceding article, shall threaten another with a weapon or draw such weapon in a quarrel, unless it be in lawful self-defense.
Any person who, in the heat of anger, shall orally threaten another with some harm not constituting a crime, and who by subsequent acts show that he did not persist in the idea involved in his threat, provided that the circumstances of the offense shall not bring it within the provisions of Article of this Code.
Any person who shall orally threaten to do another any harm not constituting a felony. If the coercion be committed for the purpose of compelling another to perform any religious act or to prevent him from so doing, the penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed.
Any other coercions or unjust vexations shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine ranging from 5 pesos to pesos, or both. Other similar coercions; Compulsory purchase of merchandise and payment of wages by means of tokens.
The same penalties shall be imposed upon any person who shall pay the wages due a laborer or employee employed by him, by means of tokens or objects other than the legal tender currency of the laborer or employee.
Formation, maintenance and prohibition of combination of capital or labor through violence or threats. Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence.
If the offender shall not reveal such secrets, the penalty shall be arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding pesos. The provision shall not be applicable to parents, guardians, or persons entrusted with the custody of minors with respect to the papers or letters of the children or minors placed under their care or study, nor to spouses with respect to the papers or letters of either of them.
Revealing secrets with abuse of office. Revelation of industrial secrets. Who are guilty of robbery. Robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons; Penalties.
The penalty of reclusion perpetua to death, when by reason or on occasion of the robbery, the crime of homicide shall have been committed.
The penalty of reclusion temporal in its medium period to reclusion perpetua when the robbery shall have been accompanied by rape or intentional mutilation, or if by reason or on occasion of such robbery, any of the physical injuries penalized in subdivision 1 of Article shall have been inflicted; Provided, however, that when the robbery accompanied with rape is committed with a use of a deadly weapon or by two or more persons, the penalty shall be reclusion perpetua to death As amended by PD No.
The penalty of reclusion temporal, when by reason or on occasion of the robbery, any of the physical injuries penalized in subdivision 2 of the article mentioned in the next preceding paragraph, shall have been inflicted.
The penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its medium period, if the violence or intimidation employed in the commission of the robbery shall have been carried to a degree clearly unnecessary for the commission of the crime, or when the course of its execution, the offender shall have inflicted upon any person not responsible for its commission any of the physical injuries covered by sub-divisions 3 and 4 of said Article The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its medium period in other cases.
Robbery with physical injuries, committed in an uninhabited place and by a band, or with the use of firearm on a street, road or alley.
In the same cases, the penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed upon the leader of the band. Definition of a band and penalty incurred by the members thereof.
When any of the arms used in the commission of the offense be an unlicensed firearm, the penalty to be imposed upon all the malefactors shall be the maximum of the corresponding penalty provided by law, without prejudice of the criminal liability for illegal possession of such unlicensed firearms.
Any member of a band who is present at the commission of a robbery by the band, shall be punished as principal of any of the assaults committed by the band, unless it be shown that he attempted to prevent the same.
Attempted and frustrated robbery committed under certain circumstances. Execution of deeds by means of violence or intimidation. Robbery in an inhabited house or public building or edifice devoted to worship.